Genetic Diversity and Heritability of Fruit Traits and Oil Content in Selected Almond Progenies and their Parents

Document Type : Research Article


1 Mahallat Higher Education Institute, Mahalat, Iran

2 Temperate Fruit Research Center, Horticultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

3 Department of Horticulture Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Khorramabad University, Lorestan, Iran


Diversity is an essential issue for fruit crop breeding programs and improving selection efficiency. This study was targeted to investigate the genetic diversity and heritability of fruit parameters and oil content in almond progenies and their parents. The results exhibited notable genetic variation among the studied progenies and their parents. The highest phenotypic and genotypic variance coefficients were 13.05 and 11.18 for fruit length in in different genotypes, respectively. Also the highest broad sense heritability belonged to nut weight of genotype (0 and 89%). The lowest phenotypic and genotypic variance coefficients was 0.19 and 0.15, respectively, which was observed in kernel weight and the lowest broad sense heritability belonged to fruit thickness (68%). For oil content, which is important for qualitative improvement in breeding programs, there was a significant difference between examined progenies and their parents. Finally, in this study, it was found that some of the progenies were high in oil, for example, the hybrid A11-18 had 63.97% of oil that could be used in almond development programs.


Adikari W (2018) Genetic analysis of reproductive and nut traits in almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb]. A thesis submitted to the University of Adelaide in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of the Doctor of Philosophy. School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Faculty of Sciences, The University of Adelaide.
Ansari A, Gharaghani A (2019) A comparative study of genetic diversity, heritability and inter-relationships of tree and nut attributes between Prunus scoparia and P. elaeagnifolia using multivariate statistical analysis. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 6(1), 137-50.
Arab MM, Marrano A, Abdollahi-Arpanahi R, Leslie CA, Cheng H, Neale DB, Vahdati K (2020) Combining phenotype, genotype, and environment to uncover genetic components underlying water use efficiency in Persian walnut. Journal of Experimental Botany. 23;71(3), 1107-1127.
Azimi MH, Karimi Alvijeh M, Zarei A (2018) Intervarietal hybridization and observation of heterosis in the new hybrids of Iris germanica. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 5(1), 65-79.
Burton GW, Devan EH (1953) Estimating heritability in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) from replicated clonal material. Agronomy Journal. 45(10), 478-481.
Chalak L, Chehade A, Kadri A (2007) Morphological characterization of cultivated almonds in Lebanon. Fruits. 62, 177-186.
Colic S, Rakonjac V, Zec G, Nikolic D, Fotiric M (2012) Morphological and Biochemical Evaluation of Selected Almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] Genotypes in Northern Serbia. Turkish JournalofAgricultureandForestry. 36, 429-438.
De Giorgio D, Polignano GB (2001) Evaluation the biodiversity of almond cultivars from germplasm collection field in Southern Italy. SustainableGlobal ofFarmer. 56, 305-311.
De Giorgio D, Leo L, Zacheo G, Lamascese N (2007) Evaluation of 52 almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) cultivars from the Apulia region in Southern Italy. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 82, 541-546.
Dicenta F, Garcia JE (1992) Phenotypical correlation some traits in almond. Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 46, 241–246.
Ebrahimi S, Rezaei Nejad A, Ismaili A, Karami F (2015) Physiological and phenological variability and heritability of some apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars and genotypes. Plant Genetic Researches. 1(2), 55-70.
Foma M, Abdala T (1985) Kernal oils of 7 plant species of Zaire. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 62, 910–911.
García-López C, Grané-Teruel N, Berenguer-Navarro V, García-García JE, Martín-Carratalá ML (1996) Major fatty acid composition of 19 almond cultivars of different origins. A chemometric approach. In: Journal ofAgriculture and Food Chemistry. 46, 963-967.
Gülcan R (1985) Descriptor list for almond (Prunus amygdalus). International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, Italy.
Hajnajari H, Chashnidel B, Vahdati K, Ebrahimi M, Nabipour A, Fallahi E (2012) Heritability of morphological traits in apple early-ripening full-sib and half-sib offspring and its potential use for assisted selection. HortScience. 47(3), 328–333.
Imani A, Amani G, Shamili M, Mousavi A, Hamed R,               Rasouli M, José Martínez P (2021) Diversity and broad sense heritability of phenotypic              characteristic in almond cultivars and            genotypes. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology.            8(3), 261-9.
Karl W, Hilig A, Lezzoni F (1998) Multivariate analysis of sour cherry germplasm collection. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Sciences, 113, 928-934.
Kester DE, Asay R (1975) Almonds. In: J. Janick & J.N. Moore (Eds.), Advances in Fruit Breeding. Purdue Univ. Press, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA. pp. 387–419
Kester DE, Gradziel TM, Grasselly C (1996) Almond In: Genetic resources of temperate fruit and nut crop. Moore, J. N. and Ballington, J. R., Jr. (eds).  Press, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA. pp. 387–419
Kodak O, Socias i company, R (2005) Phenotypic correlation between some agrochemical traits of the almond kernel. Acta Horticulturea. 726, 259–264.
Kodad O,  Socias i Company, R (2008).Variability of oil content and of major fatty acid composition in almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) and its relationship with kernel quality. Journal ofAgriculture and Food Chemistry. 56(11), 4096-4101.
Mousavi A, Fatahi Moghadam MR, Zamani Z, Imani A (2010) Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of some almond cultivars and genotypes. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 41(2), 119-131. [In Persian].
Lansari A, Iezzoni AF, Kester DE (1994) Morphological variation within collections of Moroccan almond clones and Mediterranean and North American cultivars. Euphitica. 78, 27-41.
Oručević A, Aliman J (2018) The phenology of flowering and ripening of almond cultivars Nonpareil, Texas, Ferraduel and Genco in Herzegovina. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science. 21(3), 1-9.
Rotondi A, Magli M, Ricciolini C, Baldoni L (2003) Morphological and molecular analyses for the characterization of a group of Italian olive cultivars. Euphytica. 132, 129-137.
Sánchez -Pérez R, Ortega E, Duval H, Martínez-Gómez P, Dicenta F (2007) Inheritance and relationships of important agronomic traits in almond. Euphytica. 155, 381-391.
Socias i Company R (1990) Breeding self-compatible almonds. Plant Breeding Review. 8, 313–338.
Socias i Company R, Kodad O, Alonso JM, Gradziel TM (2008) Almond quality: A breeding perspective. In: Horticulture of Review. 34, 197-238.
Socias i Company R, Kodad O, Alonso JM, Font-Forcada C (2010) Fruit quality in almond: Chemical aspects for breeding strategies. XIV GREMPA Meeting on Pistachios and Almonds. 94, 235–243.
Sarikhani S, Vahdati K, Ligterink W (2021) Biochemical properties of superior Persian walnut genotypes originated from southwest of Iran. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 8(1), 13-24.
Sorkheh K, Shiran B, Khodambashi M, Moradi H, Gradziel TM, Martinez-Gَomez P (2010) Correlations between quantitative tree and fruit almond traits and their implications for breeding. Scientia Horticulturae. 125, 323–331.
Stansfield W.D (1991) Theory and Problems in Genetics. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA. pp. 498–510
Vargas FJ, Romero MA (2001) Blooming time in almond progenies. Options Mediterran. 56, 29–34.
Zokaee-Khosroshahi M, Esna-Ashari M, Ershadi A, Imani A (2014) Morphological changes in response to drought stress in cultivated and wild almond species. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 1(1), 79-92.