The Effects of Poultry Manures on Aspergillus Section Flavi Density, Aflatoxin Production, Plant Nutrients, and Characteristics of Pistachio Fruit

Document Type : Research Article


Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran



Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites, which have documented in food and feed such as pistachio.Application of incorrect cultural practices such as animal manures resulted in increasing the density of Aspergillus section Flavi propagules and as consequences increase in aflatoxin content in pistachio nuts. Here, the density of Aspergillus section Flavi propagules, aflatoxin kernel content and characteristics of pistachio fruits in soil surface and fertilizer cannel applications of poultry manure in the orchards in randomized complete block design were compared with control treatment (without poultry manure application). Application of poultry manure on soil surface increased Aspergillus section Flavi propagulesby 4.5 and 11 times higher than compare to those treatments either which not received or in fertilizer channels, respectively. Aflatoxin content in pistachio nuts decreased by 85 and 51 % where poultry manures applied in fertilizer channels and no application compared to surface application, respectively. Overall, poultry manure in fertilizer channel reduced the frequency of blank fruits as well as increasing of splitted nuts and the nuts’ sizes.


Acea MJ, Carballas T (1996) Microbial response to organic amendments in a forest soil. Bioresour Technology. 57, 193–199.
Ali-Ehyae M (1997) Description of soil chemical analysis methods (Volume II). Soil and Water Research Institute. Technical Issue. 1024, 115p. [In Persian].
Bennet JW, Klich M (2003) Mycotoxins. Clinical Microbial Review. 497–516.
Blandino M, Reyneri A, Vanara F (2008) Influence of nitrogen fertilization on mycotoxin contamination of maize kernels. Crop Protection. 27, 222–230.
Burdaspal PA, Legarda TM, IIGO S (2005) A survey of aflatoxins in peanuts and pistachios.Comparison with some data published in 1989 in Spain. Alimentaria. 297, 151–156.
CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology), 2003. Mycotoxins, risks in plant, animal, and human systems. Task Force Report No. 139, January.
Cheraghali AM, Yazdanpanah H, Doraki N, Abouhossain G, Hassibi M, Ali-Abadi S, Aliakbarpoor M, Amirahmadi M, Askarian A, Fallah N, Hashemi T (2007) Incidence of aflatoxins in Iran pistachio nuts. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 45, 812–816.
Cotty PJ, Jaime-Garcia R (2007) Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 119, 109–115.
Dinesh R, Dubey RP, Prasad GS (1998) Soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities as influenced by organic manure incorporation into soils of a rice‐rice system. Journal of agronomy and crop science. 181(3),173-8.
Doster MA, Michailidesm TJ (1994) The development of early split pistachio nuts and the contamination by molds. Aflatoxins, and insects. First international symposium on pistachio nut, 20-24 September 1994. Adana-Turkey-Acta Horticulture. 419, 359-364.
Doster MA, Michailides TJ (1995) The relationship between date of hull splitting and decay of pistachio nuts by Aspergillus species. Plant Disease. 79, 766–769.
Doster MA, Michailides TJ (1999) Relationship between shell discoloration of pistachio nuts and incidence of fungal decay and insect infestation. Plant Disease. 83(3), 259-264.
Eaton DL, Gallagher EP (1994) Mechanisms of aflatoxin carcinogenesis. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 34, 135–172.
Emami A (1996) Methods of plant analysis. Soil & Water Research Institute. Technical Issue. 982, 202p. [In Persian].
Eslami M, Nasibi F, Manouchehri Kalantari K, Khezri M, Oloumi H (2019) Effect of exogenous application of l-arginine and sodium nitroprusside on fruit abscission and physiological disorders of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Scions. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 6(1), 51-62.
Esmail Pour A, Dehghani H, Mirdamadiha F (2000) Effects of delay on harvesting and processing time on aflatoxin rate in pistachio. Proceeding of the 14 th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Isfahan, Iran. pp. 129.
Fani SR, Moradi M, Zamanizadeh H, Mirabolfathy M, Claudia P (2014) Distribution of Nontoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus throughout pistachio growing areas in Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology. 81(2) 179-189.
Gee GW,  Bauder JW (1996) Particle size analysis. p. 384-412. In A. Klute (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1: Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 2nd Ed., American Society of Agronomy. Madison, WI.
Hadavi E (2005) Several physical properties of aflatoxin-contaminated pistachio nuts: Application of BGY fluorescence for separation of aflatoxin-contaminated nuts. Food Additives and Contaminants. 22, 1144–1153.
Huang J, Li H, Yuan H (2006) Effect of organic amendments on Verticillium wilt of cotton. Crop Protect. 25, 1167–1173.
Jones JB (2001) Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 27-160.
Keshavarz K, Vahdati K, Samar M, Azadegan B, Brown P (2011) Foliar application of zinc and boron improves walnut vegetative and reproductive growth. HortTechnology 21, 181-186.
Kouba M (2003) Quality of organic animal products. Livestock Production Science. 80, 33–40.
Lewis L, Onsongo M, Njapau H, Schurz-Rogers H, Luber G, Kieszak S, Nyamongo J, Backer L, Dahiye A, Misore A, Decock K, Rubin C (2005) Aflatoxin contamination of commercial maize products during an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in Eastern and Central Kenya. Environmental Health Perspectives. 113, 1762–1767.
Mahbobinejhad Z, Aminian H, Ebrahimi L, Vahdati K. (2019) Reduction of aflatoxin production by exposing Aspergillus flavus to CO2. Journal of Crop Protection 8(4), 441-8.
Mirabolfathy M, Moradi M, Waliyar F (2005) Variability in Aflatoxicogenic Potential and Sclorotial Production of A. flavus in Pistachio in Iran, 5th International Symposium on Pistachios & Almonds, Acta Hort.726, ISHS.
Mohammadi Moghadam M,Mortazavi AM, Hokmabadi H, Haghdel M, Mohammadi Goltapeh E (2005) Evaluation of susceptibility of pistachio cultivars to aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 production, 5th International Symposium on Pistachios & Almonds, Acta Hort.726, ISHS.
Molyneux RJ, Mahouney N, Kim JH, Campbell BC (2007) Mycotoxins in edible tree nuts. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 119, 72–78.
Moradi M, Fani SR (2018) Review of aflatoxin in pistachio and its control strategies. Plant Pathology Science. 7(2), 22-33.
Moradi M, Hokmabadi H, Mirabolfathy M (2010) Density fluctations of two major Aspergillus species air-borne spores in pistachio orchards growing regions of Iran. International Journal of Nuts and relatred science. 1, 60-70.
Moradi M, Javanshah A (2005) Distribution of aflatoxin in processed pistachio nut terminals. In IV International Symposium on Pistachios and Almonds 726. pp. 431-436.
Moradi M, Ershad D, Mirabolfathy M, Panahi B (2004) The role of plant debris and manures on the density of population Aspergillus species in the pistachio orchards. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 40, 221-234.
Muller P, Basedow T (2007) Aflatoxin contamination of pods of Indian Cassia senna L. (Caesalpinaceae) before harvest, during drying and in storage: Reasons and possible methods of reduction. Journal of Stored Products Research. 43, 323–329.
Mutegi CK, Ngugi HK, Hendriks SL, Jones RB (2009) Prevalence and factors associated with aflatoxin contamination of peanuts from Western Kenya. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 130, 27–34.
Nesci A, Etcheverry M (2002) Aspergillus section Flavi populations from field maize in Argentina. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 34, 343–348.
Norozi M, Valizadeh Kaji B, Karimi R, Nikoogoftar Sedghi M (2019) Effects of foliar application of potassium and zinc on pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit yield. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 6(1), 113-23.
Odvody G, Spencer N, Remmers J (1997) A description of silk cut, a stressrelated loss of kernel integrity in preharvest maize. Plant Disease. 81, 439–444.
Pankhurst CE, Blair BL, Magarey RC, Stirlimg GR, Bell MJ, Garside AL (2005) Effect of rotation breaks and organic matter amendments on the capacity of soils to develop biological suppression towards soil organisms associated with yield decline of sugarcane. Applied Soil Ecology. 28, 271–282.
Payne GA, Kamprath EJ, Adkins CR (1989) Increased aflatoxin contamination in nitrogen-stressed corn. Plant Disease. 73, 556–559.
Rhoades JD (1996) Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved soils. p. 417-435. In D.L. Sparks (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3: Chemical Methods, SSSA Book Series Number 5, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.
Sander KW, Barrett M, Witt WW (1985) Physiological investigations of differential corn hybrid responses to imazaquin. Proceedings of the North Central Weed Control Conference. 40, 120–121.
Shamshiri MH, Hasani MR (2015) Synergistic accumulative effects between exogenous salicylic acid and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in pistachio (Pistacia vera cv. Abareqi) seedlings under drought stress. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 2(2), 151-160.
Singh PK, Khan SN, Harsh NSK, Pandey R (2001) Incidence of mycoflora and mycotoxins in some edible fruits and seeds of forest origin. Mycotoxin Research. 17, 46–58.
Sommer NF, Buchanan JR, Fortlage RJ (1986) Relation of early splitting and tattering of pistachio nuts to aflatoxin in orchard. Phytopathology. 76, 692-694.
Tajabadipour A (1998) Early splitting and its percentage in different pistachio cultivars. Publication number 450/77 of Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan. 15pp.
Tajabadipour A, Panahi B, Zadehparizi R (2005) The Effects of Rootstock and Scion on Early splitting and Cracked Hull of Pistachio, 5th International Symposium on Pistachios & Almonds, Acta Horticulture 726, ISHS.
Thomas GW (1996) Soil pH and soil acidity. In D.L. Sparks (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3: Chemical Methods., SSSA Book Series Number 5, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. pp. 475-490
Wotton HR, Strang RN (1987) Increased susceptibility and reduced phytoalexin accumulation in drought-stressed peanut kernels challenged with Aspergillus flavus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 53, 270–273.
Wright RJ, Stuczynski TI (1996) Atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry. In D. L. Sparks (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3: Chemical Methods, SSSA Book Series Number 5, Soil Science Society of American, Madison, WI. pp. 65-90
Yazdanpanah H (2006) Mycotoxin contamination of foodstuffs and feedstuffs in I. R. Iran. Iran Journal of Pharmaceut Research. 5, 9–16.