The Effects of Poultry Manures on Aspergillus Section Flavi Density, Aflatoxin Production, Plant Nutrients, and Characteristics of Pistachio Fruit

Document Type : Research Article


Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran


Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites, which have documented in food and feed such as pistachio.Application of incorrect cultural practices such as animal manures resulted in increasing the density of Aspergillus section Flavi propagules and as consequences increase in aflatoxin content in pistachio nuts. Here, the density of Aspergillus section Flavi propagules, aflatoxin kernel content and characteristics of pistachio fruits in soil surface and fertilizer cannel applications of poultry manure in the orchards in randomized complete block design were compared with control treatment (without poultry manure application). Application of poultry manure on soil surface increased Aspergillus section Flavi propagulesby 4.5 and 11 times higher than compare to those treatments either which not received or in fertilizer channels, respectively. Aflatoxin content in pistachio nuts decreased by 85 and 51 % where poultry manures applied in fertilizer channels and no application compared to surface application, respectively. Overall, poultry manure in fertilizer channel reduced the frequency of blank fruits as well as increasing of splitted nuts and the nuts’ sizes.


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