The Effect of Yield Fluctuations and Production Risk on Pistachio Commercial Cultivars in Kerman Province

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

10.22034/jon.2021.1897191.1085

Abstract

The required capital and liquidity for agricultural production are always a limiting factor in Iranian agriculture. Since, income is a combination of production and product price, one of the major problems of the country's pistachio industry is the high yield fluctuations and high price fluctuations. In the present study, the mean and yield fluctuations of four pistachio commercial cultivars (Kaleh-Ghoochi, Ahmad-Aghaei, Akbari, and Owhadi) were evaluated in the Anar and Rafsanjan orchards in Kerman province. The information used in this study was collected through a questionnaire from farmers. The orchards were selected by multi-stage random method. From the total number of villages in the two regions, some sites were selected based on random. Then, some farmers were selected randomly. By referring to the selected farmers, an orchard was selected from each cultivar. The number of studied orchards was 100 forms in each cultivar. To measure the yield per hectare, the amount of actual product that had achieved in the last six years. Finally, the mean and yield fluctuations of 4 pistachio commercial cultivars were analyzed. The results showed that the studied cultivars had a significant difference in the yield, profit net and coefficient variation at a probability level of 5%. The results indicated that the Ahmad-Aghaei cultivar was the best in average yield (1758.7 kg ha-1) and net profit per hectare (292530201 Rials ha-1) and then Akbari cultivar. However, performance fluctuations in the Owhadi cultivar (53.06%) was lower than the other three cultivars. Base on the results, the Kaleh-Ghoochi cultivar was minimum in average yield (1073.6 kg ha-1) and production fluctuations (73.14%) than the others. Therefore, if the aim is to minimize the income fluctuations of pistachio farmers, depending on the region, one of Ahmad-Aghaei or Akbari cultivars should be planted. It can be concluded that among commercial cultivars, prioritization and justification for planting and propagation were Ahmad-Aghaei, Akbari, Owhadi and Kaleh-Ghoochi, respectively.

Keywords


Abdollahi Ezatabadi M (2020) Instructions for increasing the productivity of pistachio production. Pistachio Research Institute Publications. Pp 1-3. [In Persian]
Abdollahi Ezatabadi M, Javanshah A (2005) Investigating the affective factors the satisfaction of pistachio farmers in Kerman province from the agricultural product insurance plan. Pistachio Research Institute Publications. Issue 35. Pp 53. [In Persian]
Abdollahi Ezatabadi M, Najafi B (2002) The study of income fluctuations of Iranian pistachio growers. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Industries. 16, 169-179. [In Persian]
Abdollahi Ezatabadi M, Najafi B (2004) Investigation of the possibility of using agricultural insurance in Iran (Case study of pistachios).Journal of Iranian Agricultural Sciences. 35, 699-711. [In Persian]
Agricultural Statistics (2016, 2017) Horticultural Products, Ministry of Jihad Agriculture, Information and Communication Technology Center. 3: 240. [In Persian]
Ali S, Riaz Khan A, Mairaj G, Arif M, Fida M, Bibi S (2008) Assessment of different crop nutrient management practices for yield improvement. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2(3), 150-157.
Arun KB, Das A, Giri AK, Chattopadhyay GN (2006) Effect of integrated plant nutrient management on growth, yield and production economics of wet season rice (Oryza Sativa). Indian Journal of Agricultural Science. 76(11), 657-660.
Bozorgi M, Memariani Z, Mobli M, Salehi Surmaghi MH, Shams-Ardekani MR, Rahimi R (2013) Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology. Scientific World Journal. 14, 1-33.
Coates RW, Delwiche MJ, Brown PH (2006) Control of individual micro sprinklers and fault detection strategies. Precision Agriculture. 7, 85-99.
Esmailpour A (2001) Distribution, use and conservationof pistachio in Iran. In: Padulosi S, Hadj-Hassan A (Eds) Project on underutilized Mediterranean species. Pistacia: towards a comprehensive documentation of distribution and use of its genetic diversity in central & west Asia, North Africa and Mediterranean Europe. IPGRI, Rome, Italy. 16 pp.
Esmailpour A (2005) Evaluation of alternate bearing intensity in Iranian pistachio cultivars. Options Méditerranéennes Ser A. 63, 29–32.
Ferguson L, Haviland DR (2016) Pistachio Production Manual. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resource Publication. 334 pp.
Iniesta F, Testi L, Goldhamer DA, Fereres E (2008) Quantifying reductions in consumptive water use under regulated deficit irrigation in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Agricultural Water Management. 95, 877-886.
Karimi M, Cheraghi SAM, Dehghani F (2006) Effect of ammonium nitrate and triple super phosphate on yield and yield components of pistachio trees. IV International Symposium on Pistachio and Almonds. 726, 529-532
Li ZSong R., Nguyen CZerlin AKarp HNaowamondhol KThames GGao KLi LTseng CHHenning SM, Heber D (2010) Pistachio nuts reduce triglycerides and body weight by comparison to refined carbohydrate snack in obese subjects on a 12-week weight loss program. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 29(3), 198-203.
Ministry of Industry, Mine and Trade (2017) Report on the analysis of the country's non-oil exports during the twelve months. Deputy for Export Development. 93 pp. [In Persian]
Ministry of Industry, Mines and Trade (2018) Report on the analysis of exports of non-oil goods of the country during the twelve months. Deputy Minister of Export Development. 70 pp. [In Persian]
Mousavi SN, Keshtkar R, Mehdipour A (2007) Analysis of factors affecting product risk of pistachio orchards. 6th Iranian Agricultural Economics Conference, Mashhad. (https://civilica.com/doc/46785) [In Persian]
Nikoei MR (2018) Investigation of vegetative and reproductive growth changes of four commercial cultivars of pistachio and its effects on yield and profit. Final report of the Pistachio Research Center. 38 pp. [In Persian]
Norozi M, ValizadehKaji B, Karimi R, Nikoogoftar Sedghi M (2019) Effects of foliar application of potassium and zinc on pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit yield. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 6(1), 113-23.
Osei E, Gassman PW, Hauch LM, Neitsch S, Jones RD, Mcnitt J, Jones H (2003) Economic and environmental impacts of pasture nutrient management. Journal of Range Management. 56(3), 218-226.
Rosenstock T, Rosa UA, Plant RE, Brown PH (2010) A reevaluation of alternate bearing in pistachio. Scientia Horticulturae. 124,149–152.
Sharifkhah M, Bakhshi D, Pourghayoumi M, Abdi S, Hokmabadi H (2020) Effect of pollination time on yield and antioxidant properties of some pistachio cultivars. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 7(1), 51-8.
Sedaghat R, Hosseinifard SJ (2011) Economic study of the role of garden management on quantitative, qualitative yield and gross profit of pistachio crop. . Final report of the research project, Pistachio Research Center, 39pp. [In Persian]
Tayefeh Aliakbarkhani S, Farajpour M, Asadian AH, Aalifar M, Ahmadi S, Akbari M (2017) Variation of nutrients and antioxidant activity in seed and exocarp layer of some Persian pistachio genotypes. Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 1-6.
United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2018). Statistics Division (FAOSTAT).