Investigating Factors Affecting Pistachio Exports in Iran during 2001-2019

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D. Student on Agricultural Economics, Agriculture College, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran

2 Ph.D. on Agricultural Economics, Assistant Professor on Research, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Pistachio Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor on Agricultural Economics, Agriculture College, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran


The rate of pistachio export in Iran has decreased since 2010 onwards while the United States exports has risen sharply at the same time period. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the factors which may affect negatively on exports of Iran’s pistachio. For this purpose, the macroeconomic variables and pistachio exports data of the desired period were used. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model was used for this study. The results indicated that economic growth, appreciation of the exchange rate and bank facilities remained positive and had significant effect, while liquidity growth has a significant negative effect on pistachio export. The coefficient of ECM (-1) for pistachio is -0.0642. The low amount of error correction coefficient indicated the low rate of adjustment in pistachio exports. Only 6% of the imbalance error of pre- period adjusted in each period. Therefore, solely relying on short-run policies will not be beneficial. Based on the obtained result, it is recommended to provide financial resources for pistachio producers and exporters, domestic liquidity should be directed toward productive economic activities, domestic inflation should be deflated and adjusted with exchange rate and real appreciation of the exchange rate, should be considered by improved exchange market management.


Abdollahi Ezzat abadi M (2009) Economic study of the pistachio marketing routs and determining its efficiency. The final report of the research project. Pistachio research institute.
Emeka N, Aham Kelvin U (2016) Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) cointegration technique: application and interpretation. Journal of Statistical and Econometric Methods 5(4), 1-3.
Iranian pistachio Association (2019) Iranian pistachio production and exports statistics of Iran and America.
Iran Trade development Organization (2019) Iran pistachio product report.
Kazerouni A, Mojiri H (2010) Investigating the impact of domestic currency depreciation on the bilateral trade balance of Iran with her six major trading partners (Auto- regressive distributed lag). Iran Economic Researches 15 (45), 77-102.
Islamic republic of Iran customs (2019) Iran pistachio exports data.
Jooste C, Liu G, Naraidoo R (2013) Analyzing the effects of fiscal policy shocks in South African economy. Economic Modeling Journal 32, 215-224.
Mahmoodi A, Jalali S (2016) Iranian pistachio export competitiveness in world market. Journal of Economic Research 51(4), 951-976.
Norozi M, ValizadehKaji B, Karimi R, Nikoogoftar Sedghi M (2019) Effects of foliar application of potassium and zinc on pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit yield. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 6(1), 113-23.
Rafiei H, Mohammadi M, Taheririkandi O, Kalhori S (2017) Assessment of factors affecting pistachio exports share in the word markets with emphasis on internal production fluctuation. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development 25, 19-41.
Sedaghat R (2008a) Identifying the factors affecting pistachio exports and its application for further planning. The final report of the research project. Pistachio research Institute.
Sedaghat R (2008b) Growth rate analysis for pistachio production and exports in Iran during 1991-2002. Acta Horticulturae 769, 217-219.
Sedaghat R (2009) Forecasting of the world pistachio market (Supply, demand and price).ISHS Acta Horticulture 912, V International Symposium on Pistachios and Almonds. Turkey.
Sedaghat R (2010)Export growth and export competitiveness of Iran’s PistachioAgricultura Tropica et Sub-tropica 43(2), 148-152.
Sedaghat R (2018) Economic investigation of poverty and income distribution in pistachio cultivating areas of kerman province. Journal of Nuts 9(1), 67-76.
Sedaghat R (2019) Investigation of factors affecting pistachio orchards ‘productivity in kerman province. Journal of Nuts 10(1), 57-70.
Sharifkhah M, Bakhshi D, Pourghayoumi M, Abdi S, Hokmabadi H (2020) Effect of pollination time on yield and antioxidant properties of some pistachio cultivars. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 7(1), 51-8.