Optimization of the Sterilization and Establishment Steps for Almonds 2-22 Genotype

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Horticultural Department of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran


The almond is one of the most important nut crops in many countries, including Iran. On the other hand, due to the difficult rooting in conventional propagation methods such as cuttings, its propagation has faced challenges. Therefore, this study was aimed at optimizing in vitro culture conditions for the promising 2-22 genotype as a high-yield and late-blooming cultivar. To this end, after collecting apical and lateral buds of 2-22 genotype, surface sterilization and establishment treatments were applied to explants. The second-order equation is selected for the central compound design (CCD) with two variables (HgCl2 and NaClO) to obtain a good fit in the sterilization treatment.  The results showed that 1.8 % NaClO for 12 min + 0.1 % HgCl2 for 3 min and 1.5 % NaClO for 8 min with 81.25%, and 100% of healthy seedlings were the best treatment in contamination control and explant Viability, respectively. The experimental establishment was conducted as a factorial experiment using a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. The establishment treatments indicated that the WPM medium was more effective than the MS medium and Knop medium. The hormonal composition of 1 mgL-1 BA + 0.05 mgL-1 IBA had the best results in the percentage of the establishment (72.25%), number of foliage (7.24), and shoot length (13.77 mm).


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