Investigation of Soybean Oil Bleaching by Using Walnut Shell

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

10.22034/jon.2020.1889666.1076

Abstract

In this research, the application of walnut shell ash, as an adsorbent for soybean oil bleaching, has been investigated. Therefore, neutralized soybean oil was bleached with 1 and 2% of walnut shell ash as well as commercial bleaching earth. Then, a series of chemical tests such as amounts of carotenoids, chlorophylls, peroxide value, and free fatty acid content of bleached oils and oil retention of adsorbents were determined. The results indicated that bleaching with 2% walnut shell ash reduced carotenoids and chlorophyll contents up to 37.46 and 33.4%, respectively. Moreover, the red and yellow colors reduced in the oil bleached with 2% walnut shell ash and reached to 1.23 and 50 Lovibond, respectively. The oil retention by walnut shell ash (36.99%) was significantly lower than commercial bleaching earth (45.33%). Therefore, as a food waste, walnut shell ash can be used alone or in combination with acid activated earths or activated carbons for oil bleaching as a low cost adsorbent.

Keywords


Akoh CC (2002) Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology. 4th Edition. pp. 11-18.

Almasi A, Mousavi SA, Hesari A, Janjani H (2016) Walnut shell as a natural adsorbent for the removal of Reactive Red 2 form aqueous solution. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Science. 10, 551-556.

Almeida ES, Carvalho ACB, Souza Soares IO, Valadares LF, Vasques Mendonça AR, Silva Jr IJ, Monteiro S(2019) Elucidating how two different types of bleaching earths widely used in vegetable oils industry remove carotenes from palm oil: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. Food Research International. 121, 785-797.

AOCS (2003) Declared Surplus Peroxide Value-Acetic Acid-Chloroform Method.

AOCS (2009) Official Method Cc 13e-92 color Fats Lovibond.

AOCS (2017) Official Method Cc 13d-55 chlorophyll pigments in Refined and Bleached Oils.

AOCS (2017) Official Method Cd 3d-63 Acid Value Fats and oil.

Baranowsky K, Billek G, Buchold H, Gertz Ch, Grothues B, Sen Gupta AK, Holtmeier W, Knuth M, Lau J, Mukherjee KW, Münch EW, Saft H, Schneider M, Tiebach R, Transfeld P, Unterberg Ch, Weber K, Zschau W (2001) Technologies for industrial processing of fats and oils. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology. 103, 505-551.

Brooks DD, Berbesi R, Hodgson AS (2014) Optimization of Bleaching Process. AOCS Lipid Library.

BS 684 (1993) Fats and fatty oils- Determination of carotene in vegetable oils.

Dai YM, Chen KT, Wang YJ, ChenCC (2014) Application of Peanut Husk Ash as a Low-Cost Solid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. International Journal Chemical Engineering and Application. 5, 276-280.

Diosady LL (2005) Chlorophyll Removal from Edible oils. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering. 3, 81-88

Erten Y (2004) Use of domestic minerals for vegetable oil blanching. Master ASTER of Science Food Engineering. İzmir Institute of Technology izmir, Turkey.

Gao X, Wu L, Wan W, Xu Q, Li ZY (2017) Preparation of Activated Carbons from Walnut Shell by Fast Activation with H3PO4: Influence of Fluidization of Particles.  International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. 16(2), 1-10

Ghasemi Afshar P, Honarvar M, Gharachorloo M, Eshratabadi P, Bazyar B (2014) Bleaching of vegetable oils using press mud obtained from sugar industry. European Journal of Experimental Biology. 4, 677-684

Hassankhah A, Vahdati K, Rahemi M, Hassani D, Sarikhani Khorami S (2017) Persian Walnut Phenology: Effect of Chilling and Heat Requirements on Budbreak and Flowering Date. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 4(2), 259-271. 

Hussin F, Kheireddin M, Wandaud W (2001) Textural Characteristics, Surface Chemistry and Activation of Bleaching Earth. Chemical Engineering  Journal. 170, 90-106

Jiang Y (2017) Preparation of activated carbon from walnut shell and its application in industrial wastewater. 1st International Conference on Materials Science, Energy Technology, Power Engineering. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1839(1), 020063.

Jung MY, Yoon SH, Min DB (1998) Effects of processing steps on the contents minor compound and oxidation of Soybean oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 66, 118-120

Junmao T, Zhansheng W, Xifang S, Xiaolin X, Chun L (2008) Adsorption Kinetics of β- carotene and Chlorophyll an Acid- activation Bentonite in Model oil. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 19, 83-87

Kaynak G, Ersoz M, Kara H (2004) Investigation of The Properties of Oil at The Bleaching Unit of an Oil Refinery. Journal of Colloid Interface Science. 280, 131-138

Li Z, Hanafy H, Zhang L, Sellaoui L, SchadeckNetto M, Oliveira MLS, Seliem MK, Dotto G L, BonillaPetriciolet A, Li Q (2020) Adsorption of congo red and methylene blue dyes on an ashitaba waste and a walnut shell-based activated carbon from aqueous solutions: Experiments, characterization and physical interpretations. Chemical Engineering Journal. 388, 1-23.

Miladinović MR, Zdujić MV, Veljović DN, Krstić JB, Banković-Ilić IB, Veljković VB, Stamenković OS (2020) Valorization of walnut shell ash as a catalyst for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy. 147, 1033-1043.

Mirzabea AH, Raufi A, Mansouria A, Vahdati K (2014) Physical properties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) nuts and kernels. Advanced Crop Science. 4, 24-40.

Mustaph SI, Mohammed AA, Zakari AY, Mohammed HA (2013) Performance evaluation of local clays from northern Nigeria for the refining of palm oil. Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. 4, 58-66.

Naghizadeha A, Khosravib R, Derakhshania E, Shahabi H, Ghasemi F (2015) Application of Modified Walnut Shell with Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles in Removal of Natural Organic Matters (NOMs) from Aqueous Solution. Archives of Hygiene Sciences. 4, 187-191.

Naji MA, Ghavami M, Lari MA (2009) Effect of Different Bleaching Earths on the Quality of Some Oils.Journal of Food Technology and Nutrition. 7, 5-19.

Pragya PS, Maheshkumar Y (2013) Preparation and Study of Properties Spiral of Activated Carbon Produced from Agricultural and Industrial Waste Shells. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences. 3, 12-15.

Salehi A, Bayat F, Kiaie SA, Bayati R, Askari M (2016) Production of granular activated carbon from hard-walnut skin on an industrial scale and comparing its standards with similar samples, Journal of Specialty Scientific Research. 57, 23-3.

Singh K, Singh VK, Singh AK (2017) New Delhi India: NexGen Technologies for Mining and Fuel industries. 1&2, 1132-1133.

Subramanian R, Nabetani H, Nakajima M, Ichikawa S, Kimura T, Maekawa T (2001) Rejection of carotenoids in oil systems by a nonporous polymeric composite membrane. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 78, 803-807

Tia Y, Lin C (2007) Variation of Peroxide Value in Water-Degummed and Alkali-Refined soy oil During Bleaching Under Vacuum. Separation and Purification Technology. 56, 257-264

Usman MA, Ekwueme VI, Alaje TO, Mohammed AO(2012) Characterization, Acid Activation and Bleaching Performance of Ibeshe Clay, Lagos, Nigeria. International Scholarly Research Network. 2-3

Zheng R, Gao H, Ren Z, Cen D, Chen Z (2017) Preparation of activated bentonite and its adsorption behaviour on oil-soluble green pigment. Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing. 53, 829−845.