Aflatoxin Contamination of Pistachio and Aflatoxicose: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of People in Damghan City, Iran

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran

2 Food Safety Research Center (salt), Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

4 Cancer Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

10.22034/jon.2020.1892535.1080

Abstract

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites that produced mainly by Aspergillus species in pistachio nuts or other food products. They are toxic carcinogens and mutagens that cause a variety of adverse effects such as acute and chronic poisoning, inducing cancer initiation and congenital malformation in humans and animals. This study aimed to determine level of knowledge, attitude, and practices concerning aflatoxin contamination in pistachio and its pathogenicity among members of the general public in Damghan city, Iran. This descriptive cross sectional study enrolled 297 people from the population of Damghan city in Iran in 2019 through multistage cluster sampling. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 16. In this study, 57% (n=162) of the participants were male and the mean age was 41.81±12.1 year. Majority (40.7%) of study subjects had very poor level of knowledge, but a positive attitude (68.7%) about the aflatoxin toxicity. Also, more than 85% of study participants sometimes or always had a good practice regarding prevention of aflatoxin contamination. A significant positive correlation was found between the level of education and the knowledge and attitude scores of the participants (p <0.001). Age and practice of subjects had a significant correlation (r = 0.149, p = 0.021). The findings of this study indicate a poor knowledge level of people in Damghan city. Therefore, strategies such as providing necessary training program in order to improve the level of knowledge, attitude and practices of individuals about aflatoxin should be considered.

Keywords


Abbot JM, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Schaffner D, Bruhn C, Blalock L (2009) Comparison of food safety cognitions and self-reported food-handling behaviors with observed food safety behaviors of young adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 63(4), 572-579.

Abdolshahi A, Marvdashti LM, Salehi B, Sharifi‐Rad M, Ghobakhloo S, Iriti M and Sharifi‐Rad J (2019) Antifungal activities of coating incorporated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall mannoprotein on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Journal of Food Safety. 39(2), e12608.

Abdolshahi A, Shabani AA, Mortazavi SA, Marvdashti LM (2018) Aflatoxin binding efficiency of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannoprotein in contaminated pistachio nuts. Food Control. 87, 17-21.

Abdoshahi A, Mortazavi S, Shabani A, Elhamirad A , Taheri M (2011) Evaluation of protein, fat and fatty acids content of the pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars of Damghan, Iran. Journal of Nuts. 2, 15-24.

AbdolshahiA, Yazdi FT, Shabani AA, Mortazavi SA, Nafchi AM (2016) Antifungal properties of gelatin-based coating containing mannoprotein from saccharomyces cerevisiae on aspergillus flavus growth in pistachio. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 26(139), 93-102.  

Adebukola OC, Opeyemi AO, Ayodeji A (2015) Knowledge of food borne infection and food safety practices among local food handlers in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology. 7(9), 268-273.

Afshari H, Hokmabadi H (2011) Recognition and Determination of Contaminated Pistachios to Aflatoxin in Processing Stage. Journal of Nuts. 2(2), 27-30.

Akhondi A, Pezeshkirad G, Nourozi O (2007) Investigating the Factors Influencing Pistachio Knowledge in Yazd Province in Prevention of Aflatoxin Pistachio Infection. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science. 2(38-2), 369-377.

Aldars-García L, Ramos AJ, Sanchis V, Marín S (2015) An attempt to model the probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus under non-isothermal conditions in pistachio nuts. Food Microbiology. 51, 117-129.

Ayo E, Matemu A, Laswai G and Kimanya M (2018) Socioeconomic Characteristics Influencing Level of Awareness of Aflatoxin Contamination of Feeds among Livestock Farmers in Meru District of Tanzania. Scientifica. doi.org/10.1155/2018/3485967

Azaman NNM, Kamarulzaman NH, Shamsudin MN, Selamat J (2016) Stakeholders’ knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards aflatoxins contamination in peanut-based products. Food Control. 70, 249-256.

Cheraghali A, Yazdanpanah H, Doraki N, Abouhossain G, Hassibi M, Ali-Abadi S, Aliakbarpoor M, Amirahmadi M, Askarian A, Fallah N (2007) Incidence of aflatoxins in Iran pistachio nuts. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 45(5), 812-816.

Dosman DM, Adamowicz WL, Hrudey SE (2001) Socioeconomic determinants of health‐and food safety‐related risk perceptions. Risk Analysis. 21(2), 307-318.

Fani S, Javanshah J, Moradi M (2014) Prevalence of Aflatoxin in Rafsanjan Processed Pistachios During 2011-12, And Its Relation With Time of Harvest. Tolooebehdasht. 12(4), 175-189.

Fani S, Moradi M, Zamanizadeh H, Mirabolfathy M, Probst C (2014) Distribution of nontoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus throughout pistachio growing areas in Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology. 81(2), 179-189.

Fani SR, Moradi M, Probst C, Zamanizadeh HR, Mirabolfathy M, Haidukowski M, Logrieco AF (2014) A critical evaluation of cultural methods for the identification of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates for aflatoxin mitigation in pistachio orchards of Iran. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 140(4), 631-642.

Goldblatt L (2012) Aflatoxin: scientific background, control, and implications. Elsevier; 2012 Dec 2. New York and London. 13-46.

Guchi E, Ayalew A, Dejene M, Ketema M, Asalf B, Fininsa C (2014) Stakeholders’ awareness and knowledge about aflatoxin contamination of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and associated factors in eastern ethiopia. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 4(1), 930-936. 

Haji B, Ehrampoush M, Amiri A, KhalatbariI S, Gerayllo S, Hosseini M (2015) Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of resident women of Shiraz about food borne disease. Journal of Food Microbilogy. 2(1), 1-12.

Hassan N, Kamarulzaman N, Nawi NM (2019) Factors influencing consumers’ knowledge towards contaminated peanut-based products. International Food Research Journal. 26(1), 147-156.

Janjani H, Mehralian M, Shamsizadeh Z, Sangsefidi ZS, Khashij M (2018) Knowledge and Practice of People in Kermanshah Regarding Food Hygiene and Safety. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research. 16(1), 99-113.

Lee HS, Nguyen-Viet H, Lindahl J, Thanh HM, Khanh TN, Hien L, Grace D (2017) A survey of aflatoxin B1 in maize and awareness of aflatoxins in Vietnam. World Mycotoxin Journal. 10(2), 195-202.

Magan N, Aldred D (2007) Post-harvest control strategies: minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 119(1-2), 131-139.

Mahbobinejhad Z, Aminian H, Ebrahimi L, Vahdati K. (2019) Reduction of aflatoxin production by exposing Aspergillus flavus to CO2. Journal of Crop Protection. 8(4), 441-8.

Matumba L, Monjerezi M, Kankwamba H, Njoroge SM, Ndilowe P, Kabuli H, Kambewa D, Njapau H (2016) Knowledge, attitude, and practices concerning presence of molds in foods among members of the general public in Malawi. Mycotoxin Research. 32(1), 27-36.

Moradi M, Ershad D, Mirabou MA, Panahi B (2004) The role of plant debris, soil and manure on population density of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger groups in pistachio orchards of Kerman province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 40, 221-234. [In Persian]

Moradi M, Fani S, Masoumi H (2014) Population density of Aspergillus species belong to section Flavi and Nigri on pistachio nut in Kerman Province. Journal of Applied Research in Plant Protection. (3), 79-91.

Moradi M, Hokabadi H, Fani S (2015) A Study Concerned with the Factors Affecting the Fungal Growth and Aflatoxin Production During Storage of Pistachio in Kerman Province. Food Technology and Nutrient. (12), 83-92.

Norozi M, ValizadehKaji B, Karimi R and Nikoogoftar Sedghi M (2019) Effects of foliar application of potassium and zinc on pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit yield. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 6(1), 113-123.

Pohland A, Thorpe C, Nesheim S (1990) Mycotoxin methodology. Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology: official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer. 10(3), 110-119.

Redzwan M, Mutalib A, Sokhini M and Rahman A (2012) Socio–demographic and socio–economic determinants of adults' knowledge on fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the diets. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2(3), S1835-S1841.

Schatzmayr  G, Streit E (2013) Global occurrence of mycotoxins in the food and feed chain: facts and figures. World Mycotoxin Journal. 6(3), 213-222.

Shafieian Z (2015) Study of knowledge and attitude of among Ilam University of Medical Sciences students regarding to food sanitation and safety. Scientific Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences, 23(3), 8-15.

Shakerardekani A, Karim R, Mirdamadiha F (2012) The effect of sorting on aflatoxin reduction of pistachio nuts. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 10, 459-461.

Sharifkhah M, Bakhshi D, Pourghayoumi M, Abdi S, Hokmabadi H (2020) Effect of Pollination Time on Yield and Antioxidant Properties of Some Pistachio Cultivars. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 7(1), 51-58.

Tola M, Kebede B (2016) Occurrence, importance and control of mycotoxins: A review. Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2(1), 1191103.

Toma A (2019) Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Farmers’ towards Aflatoxin in Cereal Crops in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. EC Nutrition. 14, 247-254.