Effects of Drought Stress on Almond Cultivars Responses Grafted on Different Rootstocks

Document Type: Research Article


1 Department of Horticulture Science and Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Temperate Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

3 Department of Horticulture Science, Abhar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, Iran


In this study, the response of selected almond cultivars on different rootstocks under drought stress base on Morpho-physiological traits using a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was investigated. The experimental was carried out at the Temperate Fruit Research Center of Horticultural Sciences Research Institute (HSRI) in 2016. The factors included cultivars in five levels (Supernova, Texas, Marcona, Shokoufeh and K13-40), rootstocks in three levels: GF-677, GN-22) (Peach × almond hybrids) and seedlings of bitter almond No.32 (Somewhat resistant to drought stress) and drought stress in four levels: irrigation intervals of 3 (control), 5, 10 and 15 days. The factors such as leaf abscission, leaf area (LA), cell membrane stability index (MSI), chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and chlorophyll content index (CCI), minimal fluorescence (F0), maximal fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv) and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) were measured. The results showed that the interaction between the cultivar and the rootstock for F0 and for CCI was significant at 1% level. Interactions of cultivar and drought stress were significant for Fm and Fv at the 5% level and for CCI, F0, Fv/Fm at the 1% level. Interactions of rootstock × drought were significant for CCI, F0, Fv/Fm at the 1% level. Drought decreased Fv with increasing F0 and decreasing Fm, in the evaluated cultivars and reduced the Fv/Fm in sensitive cultivars on seedling rootstock and GN-22 from 0.82 to 0.66 but in resistance cultivar Shokoufeh on GF-677 was from 0.818 to 0.789. As a general result, all of the cultivars on the GF-677 rootstock showed greater resistance to drought stress, and Shokoufeh and Marcona cultivars, especially on the GF-677 rootstock, tolerated drought stress better, and these combinations of rootstock - scion were superior to present experiment.


Akbarpour A, Imani A, Ferdowskhah-yeganeh S (2017) Physiological and morphological responses of almond cultivars under in vitro drought stress. Journal of Nuts. 8(1), 61-72.

Alizadeh A, Alizadeh V, Nassery L, Eivazi A (2011) Effect of drought stress on apple dwarf rootstocks. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 1(3), 86-94.

Antonopoulou C, Dimassi K, Therios I, Chatzissavvidis C, Tsirakoglou V (2005) Inhibitory effects of riboflavin on in vitro rooting and nutrient concentration of explants of peach rootstock GF677. Scientia Horticulturae. 106, 268-272.

Bacelar EA, Correia CM, Moutinho-Pereira JM, Goncalves BC, Lopes JI, Torress-Pereira JMG (2004) Sclerophylly and leaf anatomical traits of five field-grown olive cultivars growing under drought conditions. Tree Physiology. 24, 233-239.

Bao AK, Wang SM, Wu GQ, Xi JJ, Zhang JL, Wang CM (2009) Overexpression of the Arabidopsis H+-PPase enhanced resistance to salt and drought stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Plant Science. 176, 232–240.

Baker NR, Rosenqvist E (2004) Applications of chlorophyll fluorescence can improve crop production strategies, an examination of future possibilities. Journal of Experimental Botany. 55, 1607-1621.

Bartels D, Sunkar R (2005) Drought and salt tolerance in plants. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 24, 23–58.

Bota J, Flexas J, Medrano H (2001) Genetic variability of photosynthesis and water use in Balearic grapevine cultivars. Annals of Applied Biology. 138, 353–361.

De Herralde F, Biel C, Batlle I. Save R (2003) Gas exchange under water stress conditions in three almond cultivars. Options Mediterraneennes. 63, 327-331.

Felipe AJ (2009) Felinem, Garnem and Monegro Almond × Peach Hybrid Rootstocks. Hortscience. 44(1), 196–197.

Ghassemi-Golezani K, Lotfi R (2015) The impact of salicylic acid and silicon on chlorophyll a fluorescence in mung bean under salt stress. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 62, 611-616.

Grant OM, Johnson AW, Davies MJ, James CM, Simpson, DW (2010) Physiological and morphological diversity of cultivated strawberry in response to water deficit. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 68, 264-272.

Guerfel M, Baccouri O, Boujnah D, Chaibi W Zarrouk M (2009) Impacts of water stress on gas exchange, water relations, chlorophyll content and leaf structure in the two main Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae. 119, 257-263.

Huang ZA, Jiang DA, Yang Y, Sun JW, Jin SH (2004) Effects of nitrogen deficiency on gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidant enzymes in leaves of rice plants. Photosynthetica. 42, 357–364.

Isaakidis A, Sotiropoulos T, Almaliotis D, Therios I, Stylianidis D (2004) Response to severe water stress of the almond Prunus amygdalus. ‘Ferragnès’ grafted on eight rootstocks. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 32, 355–362.

Jangpromma N, Songsri P, Thammasirirak S, Jaisil P (2010) Rapid assessment of chlorophyll content in sugarcane using a SPAD chlorophyll meter across different water stress conditions. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 9, 368-374.

Khalid AKT, da Silva JA, Cai W (2010) Water deficit and polyethylene glycol 6000 affects morphological and biochemical characters of Pelargonium odoratis simum (L.). Scientia Horticulturae. 125, 159–166. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.

Khanizadeh S, DeEll J (2002) Chlorophyll fluorescence, a new technique to screen for tolerance of strawberry flowers to spring frost. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS). 567, 337-339.

Markwell J, Osterman JC, Mitchell JL (1995) Calibration of the minolta spad-502 leaf chlorophyll meter. Photosynthesis Research. 46, 467–472.

Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence-a practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany. 51(345), 659-668.

Mehta P, Jajoo A, Mathur S, and Bharti S (2010) Chlorophyll a fluorescence study revealing effects of high salt stress on Photosystem II in wheat leaves. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 48, 16-20.

Momenpour A, Imani A, Bakhshi D (2015) Evaluation of salinity tolerance in some almond genotypes grafted on GF677 rootstock base on morphological characteristic and chlorophyll fluorescence. Journal of Plant Process and Function Iranin Society of Plant Physiology. 3(10), 9-28.

Mujdeci M, Senol H, Cakmakci T, and Celikok P (2011) The effects of different soil water matric suctions on stomatal resistance. Food Agriculture and Environment. 9, 1027-1029.

Pedros R, Moya I, Goulas Y, Jacquemoud S (2008) Chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectrum inside a leaf. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 7, 498-502.

Peper FI, Corcuera LJ, Alberdi M, Lusk C (2007) Differential photosynthetic and survival responses to soil drought in two evergreen nothofagus species. Annals of Forest Sciences. 64, 447–452.

Ranjbarfordoei AR, Samson P, Van D (2006) Chlorophyll fluorescence performance of sweet almond [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D. Webb] in response to salinity stress induced by NaCl Photosynthetica. 44(4), 513-522.

Romero P, Navarro JM, Garci, F, Ordaz PB (2004). Effects of regulated deficit irrigation during the pre-harvest period on gas exchange, leaf development and crop yield of mature almond trees. Tree Physiology. 24, 303–312.

Rostami Shahraji T, Hajimerzai A, Shabaian N (2010) Physiological responses of Pistacia khinjuck (stocks) seedling to water stress. Indian Journal of Biology Technologly. 1(2), 44-49.

Rouhi V, SamsonR, Lemeur R, Van Damme P (2007) Photosynthetic gas exchange characteristics in three different almond species during drought stress and subsequent recovery. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 59, 117–129.

Sai-Kachout S, Ben-Mansour A, Jaffel K, Leclere JC, Rejeb M.N, Ouerghi Z (2009) The effect of salinity on the growth of the halophyte Atriplex Hortensis. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research. 7, 319-332.

Sairam RK, Dharmar K, Chinnusamy V, Meena RC (2009) Water logging-induced increase in sugar mobilization, fermentation, and related gene expression in the roots of mug bean (Vigna radiata). Journal Plant Physiology. 6, 602-616.

Sairam RK, Veerabhadra Rao K, Srivastava GC (2002) Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science. 163, 1037-1046.

Samandari-Gikloo T, Elhami B (2012) Physiological and morphological responses of two almond cultivars to drought stress and cycocel. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. 3(5), 1000-1004.

Schlemmer MR, Francis DD, Shanahan JF, Schepers JS, (2005) Remotely measuring chlorophyll content in corn leaves with differing nitrogen levels and relative water content. Agronomy Journal. 97,106-112

Shokouhian AA, Davarynejad GH, Tehranifar A, Rasoulzadeh A, Imani A (2015) Evaluation the effects of water stress and effective microorganisms on biochemical properties of almond vegetative. Journal of Plant Research. 28(3), 549-560.

Sivritepe N, Ertur U, Yerlikaya C, Turkan I, Bor M, Ozdemir F (2008) Response of the cherry rootstock to water stress induced in vitro. Biology of Plants. 52, 573–576.

Stevens J, Senaratna T, Sivasithamparam K (2006) Salicylic acid induces salinity tolerance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Roma), associated changes in gas exchange, water relations and membrane stabilization. Plant Growth Regulation. 49, 77-83.

Sundberg MD (1985) Trend in distribution of stomata in desert plants. Desert Plants. 7, 154-157.

Taiz L, Zeiger E (2006) Plant physiology, 4th edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., publishers Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA. pp. 690.

Xiong D, Chen J, Yu T, Gao W, Ling X, Li Y, Peng S, Huang J (2015) Spad-based leaf nitrogen estimation is impacted by environmental factors and crop leaf characteristics. Scientific Reports. 5, 1-12, 13389.

Yadollahi A, Arzani K, Ebadi A, Wirthensohn M, Karimi S (2011) The response of different almond genotypes to moderate and severe water stress in order to screen for drought tolerance. Scientia Horticulturae. 129, 403-413.

Yuan Z, Cao Q, Zhang K, Ata-Ul-Karim ST, Tian Y, Zhu Y, Cao, W, Liu X (2016) Optimal leaf positions for spad meter measurement in rice. Frontiers in Plant Science. 7, 1-10, 719.

Zamani Z, Taheri A, Vezvaei A, Poustini K (2002) Proline content and stomatal resistance of almond seedlings as affected by irrigation intervals. Acta Horticulturae. 491, 411-416.

Zokaee Khosroshahi K (2013) Investigation of drought tolerance in five Iranian almond species based on the important morphological and physiological markers. Thesis for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Horticulture Faculty of Agriculture Department of Horticultural Sciences of Bu- Ali Sina University. pp. 159.