The Impact of Several Plant Extracts and Essential Oils on Pistachio Psylla (Agonoscena pistaciae) and Its Natural Enemy, Chrysoperla carnea

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Plant Protection, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran

2 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran


The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hem.: Aphalaridae), is one of the most important pests of pistachio orchards in Iran. Green lacewing, Chrysoperlacarnea, as a general predator found abundantly in Iranian pistachio gardens, loses its performance under the impression of pesticides spraying. Nowadays, considering environmental pollutions, human health and the importance of healthy and organic nutrition, extensive researches are carried out around the world in order to replace the synthetic products with plant materials. In this study, the mortality effect of two ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Tagetes erecta and two essential oils of Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis were studied on A. pistaciae and its natural enemy C. carnea. The results showed that, although essential oils do not have appreciable effect on mortality of this psylla, but the extracts have high mortality potential on psylla nymphs, especially on N1 nymphs and the low influence on 1-2 days green lacewing larvae. The plant extracts and essential oils have not effect on 5-6 days green lacewing larvae. The results show that the plant derived chemicals and ethanol have not negative effect on hatching rate of the natural enemy. Among these treatments, R. officinalis essential oil has negative effect on eggs hatching rate, so its use is not recommended. Therefore with no impact of plant material on natural enemies, we can use green lacewing and herbal extracts in integrated pest control.


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