Effects of Bacterial Strains to Inhibit Growth of Phytophthora pistaciae under Different Electrical Conductivities

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Pant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Damghan, Iran

2 2Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran Pistachio Safety Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran

3 Plant Protection Research Department, Yazd Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Yazd, Iran


Root and crown rot (gummosis) is known as the most destructive disease affecting pistachio in Iran. The efficiency of bacterial strains to reduce the growth rate of Phytophthora pistaciae was studied under different electrical conductivities (EC, 0, 2, 4, 8, 12 ds/m). Soil and rhizosphere samples were collected from pistachio growing regions in Kerman province, Iran, during 2011 - 2012. Overall, the strains of bacteria were presented in all sampling areas in both infected and uninfected orchards. Out of 400 bacterial isolates, 63% and 37% were collected from soil and rhizosphere samples, respectively. Among 400 bacterial isolates, 19 exhibited the highest ability to reduce the growth of P. pistaciae in dual culture, volatile and non-volatile compounds, though by different degrees. The degrees of inhibitory activities against mycelial growth of P. pistaciae by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains ranged from 40 to 97.5%, 8 to 97.5% and 7.5 to 90% in dual culture, non-volatile and volatile assays, respectively. The Bacillus subtilis strains reduced the growth of P. pistaciae by 22-92.5%, 17-85%, 21-92.5% in dual culture, non-volatile and volatile assays, respectively. The negative effects of ECs on the growth of P. pistaciae in modified CMA were observed in 8 and 12 ECs. ECs had no effect until 8 ds/m on the growth of P. pistaciae, while the mycelial growth decreased by ECs higher than 8 ds/m. No mycelial growth was observed at EC 14 ds/m. There were significant differences between different bacterial isolates, ECs and their interactions on the mycelial growth of P. pistaciae. The highest mycelial suppression belonged to isolates Nos. 123 and 112 in dual culture, volatile and non-volatile compounds test. More research is required to understand the native mechanisms involved in biological control under natural conditions in pistachio orchards


 Aghighi S, Shahidi Bonjar GH, Rawashdeh R, Batayneh S, Saadoun I (2004) First report of antifungal spectra of activity of Iranian Actinomycetes strains against Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium solani, Phytophthora megasperma, Verticillium dahliae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Asian Journal of Plant Science. 3(4), 463-471.
Arras G, Sanna P, Astone V, Arru S (1998) Effect of calcium chloride on the inhibitory activity of Rhodotorula glutinis against Penicillium italicum on orange fruits. Italus Hortus. 5, 67-70.
Asghar HN, Zahir ZA, Arshad M (2004) Screening rhizobacteria for improving the growth, yield, and oil content of canola (Brassica napus L.). Crop and Pasture Science. 55(2), 187-194.
Banihashemi Z, Moradi M (2004) The Frequency of isolation of Phytophthora spp. from crown and root of pistachio nut tree and reaction of the crown and root to the casual agents. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 40, 57-77.
Banihashemi Z, Tabatabaee SAR (2004) Interaction between salinity and Phytophthora citrophthora in pistachio seedlings under hydroponic system. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 40, 159-178.
Berg G, Ballin G (1994) Bacterial antagonists to Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Journal of Phytopathology. 141(1), 99-110.
Besri M (1993) Effects of salinity on plant diseases development. In: Lieth H, Al Masoom A (eds) Towards the rational use of high salinity tolerant plants. Springer Science & Business Media.
Biggs AR, El-Kholi MM, El-Neshawy S, Nickerson R (1997) Effects of calcium salts on growth, polygalacturonase activity, and infection of peach fruit by Monilinia fructicola. Plant Disease. 81(4), 399-403.
Boumaaza B, Benkhelifa M, Belkhoudja M (2015) Effects of two salts compounds on mycelial growth, sporulation, and spore germination of six isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the western north of Algeria. International
Journal of Microbiology. https://www.hindawi.com/journals. doi: 10.1155/2015/572626.
Compant S, Clément C, Sessitsch A (2010) Plant growth-promoting bacteria in the rhizo-and endosphere of plants: their role, colonization, mechanisms involved and prospects for utilization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 42(5), 669-678.
Conway WS, Sams CE, McGuire RG, Kelman A (1992) Calcium treatment of apples and potatoes to reduce postharvest decay. Plant Disease. 76(4), 329-334.
Fani SR, Moradi M, Alipour MM, Sherafati A, Mohammadi MM, Sedaghati E, Khodaygan P (2013) Efficacy of native strains of Trichoderma harzianum in biocontrol of pistachio gummosis. Iranian Journal Plant Protection Science. 44(2), 243- 252. [In Persian].
Fani SR, Zamanizadeh HR, Mirabolfathy M (2005) Isolation and identification of the causal agents of root and crown rot of pistachio trees in the Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. Acta Horticulture. 726, 647-650.
Glick BR, Cheng Z, Czarny J, Duan J (2007) Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 119(3), 329-339.
Haas D, Défago G (2005) Biological control of soil-borne pathogens by fluorescent pseudomonads. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 3(4), 307-319.
Hora TS, Baker R (1972) Soil fungistasis: microflora producing a volatile inhibitor. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 59(3), 491-500.
 Kloepper JW, Lifshitz R, Zablotowicz RM (1989) Free-living bacterial inocula for enhancing crop productivity. Trends Biotechnology. 7(2), 39-44.
Lee BD, Dutta S, Ryu H, Yoo SJ, Suh DS, Park K (2015) Induction of systemic resistance in Panax ginseng against Phytophthora cactorum by native Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HK34. Journal of Ginseng Research. 39(3), 213-220.
Lugtenberg B, Kamilova F (2009) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Annual Review of Microbiology. 63, 541-556.
Mirabolfathy M, Cooke D, Duncan JM, Williams NA, Ershad D, Alizadeh A (2001) Phytophthora  pistaciae sp. nov. and P. melonis: the principal causes of pistachio gummosis in Iran. Mycological Research. 105, 1166-1175.
Moradi M (2015) Assessment of application of systemic and protective fungicides for long-term control of pistachio crown and root rot. Final Report of Iranian Pistachio Research Institute 2-06-06-88008. ACIST Register number: 47569. [In Persian].
Moradi M, Mohammadi AH, Haghdel M (2017) Efficiency of Elite Fungicide for Control of Pistachio Gummosis. Journal of Nuts. 8(1), 11-20.
Raaijmakers JM, De Bruijn I, Nybroe O, Ongena M (2010) Natural functions of lipopeptides from Bacillus and Pseudomonas: more than surfactants and antibiotics. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 34(6), 1037-1062.
Raaijmakers JM, Mazzola M (2012) Diversity and natural functions of antibiotics produced by beneficial and plant pathogenic bacteria. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 50, 403-424.
 Raaijmakers JM, Vlami M, De Souza JT (2002) Antibiotic production by bacterial biocontrol agents. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 81(1-4), 537-547.
Regragui A, Lahlou H (2005) Effect of salinity on in vitro Trichoderma harzianum antagonism against Verticillium dahliaePakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 8(6), 872-876.
Richards LA (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Washington: United States Salinity Laboratory, United States Department Of Agriculture; Washington. pp 169.
Shaad NW, Jones JB, Chun W (2001) Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, 3rd ed., American Phytopathological Society, APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp. 398.
Swiecki TJ, MacDonald JD (1991) Soil salinity enhances Phytophthora root rot of tomato but hinders asexual reproduction by Phytophthora parasitica. Journal of the American
Society for Horticultural Science. 116(3), 471-477.
Vessy K (2003) Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria as Biofertilizers. Plant and Soil. 255(2), 571–586.
Volpin H, Elad Y (1991) Influence of calcium nutrition on susceptibility of rose flowers to Botrytis blight. Phytopathology. 81(11), 1390-1394.
Wisniewski M, Droby S, Chalutz E, Eilam Y (1995) Effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+ on Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansumin in vitro and on the biocontrol activity of Candida oleophila, Plant Pathology. 44, 1016–1024. 
Yamazaki H, Hoshina T (1995) Calcium nutrition affects resistance of tomato seedlings to bacterial wilt. HortScience. 30(1), 91-93.