Physiological and Morphological Responses of Almond Cultivars under In Vitro Drought Stress

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Horticulture, Hormozgan University, Hormozgan, Iran

2 Temperate Fruit Research Center, Horticultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

3 Training and Education Organization of Golestan Province, Gorgan, Iran

Abstract

In this study, physiological and morphological responses of five almond cultivars to drought stress were investigated under in vitro conditions. Plantlets from five commercial almond cultivars (Supernova’, ‘Tuono’, ‘Sahand’, ‘Ferragnes ’ and ‘Shahroud 21’] were established in MS medium containing 0.5 mg per liter BAP and then subcultured  in MS proliferation medium containing 1 mg per liter BAP. Plantlets were exposed to four different levels of polyethylene glycol containing 0, 2, 4 and 6 percent, respectively, which is equivalent to 0, -0.14,-0.36 and -0.66 bar of water potential as drought stress levels during four weeks. This study was carried out as a two-factor factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications, each consisting of two jars, each contained two explants. At the end of the stress period, physiological indicators of stress, including leaf relative water content (RWC), proline content and ion leakage of leaves and morphological indicators, including plantlet height and number of developed leaves, were measured. The results showed that drought stress increased ion leakage and proline content, while it reduced the RWC, plantlet height and number of developed leaves. According to these results, ‘Supernova’ and ‘Tuono’ were less affected by drought stress compared to other cultivars, while ‘Shahroud 21’ and ‘Ferragnes’ were more affected than others. ‘Sahand’ also showed an intermediate performance compared to other cultivars.

Keywords


Alarcon JJ, Sanchez-Blance MJ, Nicolas E, Egea J, Dicenta F (2002) Effect of drought on shoot water relations in Antoneta and Marta almond cultivars grafted onto Garrigues and GF677 rootstock. Acta Horticulturae. 591, 345-349.

Alizadeh A (2006) The relationship between the water, Soil and the plant. Printing VIII, Publications of Imam Reza University, Mashhad. pp. 484. [In Persian].

Al-Khayri JM, Al-Bahrany AM (2004) Growth, water content and proline accumulation in drought stressed callus of date palm. Biology of Plant. 48, 105-108.

Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil. 39, 205-207.

Blum A, Sullivan CY (1986) The comparative drought resistance of landraces of sorghum and millet from dry and humid regions. Annual Botany. 57, 838-846.

 Chartzoulakis K, Patakas A, Kofidis G, Bosabalidis A, Nastou A (2002) Water stress affects leafanatomy,gas exchange, water relation and growth of two avocadocultivars. Scientia Horticulturae. 95, 39-50.

Hsiao TC (1973) Plant responses to water stress. Annual Review of Plant Physioloy. 24, 519-570.

Isaakidis A, Sotiropoulos T, Almaliotis D, Therios I, Stylianidis D (2004) Response to severe water stress of the almond Prunus amygdalus. ‘Ferragnes’ grafted on eight rootstocks. Newzealand Journal Crop and Horticultural Science. 32, 355-362.

Jalilimarandi R, Hassani A, Doulatibaneh H, Azizi H, Hajitaghilou R (2011) Effect of multiple levels of soil moisture on morphological and physiological indicators of 3 cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). Journal of Horticulture Science of Iran. 42(1), 31-40. [In Persian].

Karimi S, Hojati S, Eshghi S, Nazary Moghaddam R, Jandoust S (2012b) Magnetic exposure improves tolerance of fig ‘Sabz’ explants to drought stress induced in vitro. Scientia Horticulturae. 137, 1 - 99.

Karimi S, Yadollahi A, Nazari-Moghadam R, Imani A, Arzani K (2012a) In vitro screening of almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.)) genotypes for drought tolerance. Journal of Biological and EnvironmentalSciences. 6(18), 263-270.

Kavikishore PB, Sangam S, Amrotha RN, Laxmi P, Naidu S (2005) Regulation of prolin biosynthesis, degradation, uptake and transport in higher plants. Its implications in plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Current Science. 88, 424-438.

Kirnak H, Kaya C, Tas I, Higgs D (2001) The influences of water deficit on vegetative growth, physiology, fruit yield and quality in eggplants. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology. 27(3-4), 34-46.

Kramer PJ (1983) Water relations of plants. Agronomy. 70, 630-634.

Molassiotis AN, Sotiropoulos T, Tanou G, Kofidis G, Diamantidis G, Therios I (2006) Antioxidant and anatomical responses in shoot culture of the apple rootstock MM 106 treated with NaCl, KCl, Mannitol or Sorbitol. Biologia Plantarum. 50, 61-68.

Morgan JM (1984) Osmoregulation and water stress in higher plants. Annuals Review of Plant Physiology. 35, 299-319.

Mousavi SA, Tatari M, Mehnatkesh A, Haghighi B (2009) Vegetative response of young seedlings of 5 almond cultivars to water deficit. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal. 25(1), 551-567. [In Persian].

Ramanjulu S, Sreenivasulu N, Sudhakar C (1998) Effect of water stress on photosynthesis in two mullberry genotypes with different drought tolerance. Photosynthetica. 35, 279-283.

Rasouli V (2000) Introduction of three Grape cultivars resistant to drought stress in Qazvin. Final report of agriculture and natural research center of Qazvin. pp.91 [In Persian].

Rieger M, Duemmel MJ (1992) Comparison of drought resistance among Prunus species from divergenth abitats. Tree Physiology. 11, 369-380.

Rieger MW (2001) Online course. Mark’s fruit crops site: Almond-Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb. Georgia University. 87-88, 174-175.

Romero P, Botia P, Garcia F (2004) Effects of regulated deficit irrigation under subsurface drip irrigation conditions on vegetative development and yield of mature almond trees. Plant and Soil. 260, 169-181.

Saneoka H, Moghaieb REA, Premachandra GS, Fajit K (2004) Nitrogen nutrition and water stress effects on cell membrane stability and leaf water relations in Agrostis palistris Hads. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 52 (2), 131-138.

 Savee R, Adillon J (1990) Copmparision between plant water relations of in vitro plants and rooted cuttings of kiwifruit. Acta Horticulturae. 282, 53-57.

Shairam RK, Srivastava GC (2002) Changes in antioxidant activity in sub-cellular fractions of tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes in response to long term salt stress. Plant Science. 162, 897-904.

Sircelj H, Tausz M, Grill D, Batic F (2005) Biochemical responses in leaves of two apple tree cultivars subjected to progressing drought. Journal of Plant Physiology. 162, 1308-1318.

Sivritepe N, Erturk U, Yerlikaya C, Turkan I, Bor M, Ozdemir F (2008) Response of the cherry rootstock to water stress induced in vitro. Biology of Plants. 52, 573–576.

Sivritepe N, Sivritepe N, Erturk U, Yerlikaya C, Turkan I, Bor M, Ozdemir F (2008) Response of the cherry rootstock to water stress induced in vitro. Biology of Plants. 52, 573–576.

Sofo A, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C, Masia A (2004) Lipoxygenase activity and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of olive tree in response to drought stress. Physiologia Plantarum. 121, 56-58.

Sorkheh K, Shiran B, Khodambshi M, Rouhi V, Ercisli S(2012) in vitro assay of native Iranian almond species  (Prunus L. spp.) for drought tolerance. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 105 (3), 395-404

Sullivan CY, Ross WM (1979) Selecting for Drought and Heat Resistance in Grain Sorghum. In: Mussell H, Staples RC, Eds., Stress Physiology in Crop Plants, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 263-281.

Taylor CB (1996) Proline and water deficit: Ups, Ins, and Outs. Plant Cell. 8, 1221-1224.

Teulate B, Rekika D, Nachit MM, Monneveux P (1997) Comparative osmotic adjustments in barley and tetra ploid wheats. Plant Breeding.116, 519-523.

Torrecillas A, Alarcon JJ, Domingo R, Planesa J, Sanchez-Blanco MJ (1996) Strategies for drought resistance in leaves of two almond cultivars. Plant Science.118, 135-143.

Trotel P, Bouchereau A, Niogret MF, Larher F. (1996) The fate of osmo-accumulated proline in leaf discs of Rape (Brassica napus L.) incubated in a medium of low osmolarity. Plant Science. 118, 31-45.

Turkan I, Bor M, Ozdemir F, Koca H (2005) Differential responses of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in the leaves of drought - tolerant P. acutifolius Gray and drought-sensitive P. vulgaris L. subjected to polyethylene glycol mediated water stress. Plant Science. 168, 223-231.

Valero-Galvan J, Gonzalez-Fernandez R (2013) Physiological and Proteomic Analyses of Drought Stress Response in Holm Oak Provenances. Journal of Proteome Research. 12, 5110 – 5123.

Wang L (2014) Physiological and molecular responses to drought stress in rubber tree. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 83, 243-249.

Zamani Z, Taheri A, Vezvaei A, Poustini K (2002) Proline content and stomatal resistance of almond seedlings affected by irrigation intervals. Acta Horticulturae. 591, 411-416.