Efficiency of Elite Fungicide for Control of Pistachio Gummosis

Document Type : Research Article


Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran


Several species of Phytophthora cause crown and root rot diseases of herbaceous and woody plants. Crown and root rot of pistachio trees cause significant damages in infected orchards. The effect of foliar application with Elite (fosetyl-Al) in 2 and 2.5 g/l was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The frequency of mortality, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots, height, intensity of crown root colonization using CAMA-PARP medium was determined. Under greenhouse experiments, foliar application with Elite increased height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and root either in inoculation with and without Phytophthora drechsleri. The effects of Elite were more pronounced in roots, which increased the fresh and dry weight of root 1.3 and 2.5 times compared to those not sprayed with Elite, respectively. On the other hand, the application of Elite before or on the day of inoculation significantly reduced the frequency of mortality, which ranged from 35 to 90% (P ≤ 0.01). Crown and root colonization of pistachio seedling was affected by both the concentration of Elite and reduced the frequency of crown and root colonization of seedling. When fungicide and pathogen were applied at the same time, the frequency of colonization reduced to 18% and 36% for 2 and 2.5 g/l, respectively, and 43% and 60% when seedlings were treated with fungicide before P. drechsleri inoculations. The highest effect was seen in foliar application of Elite seven days before inoculation in 2.5 g/l. Further investigations have been conducted to understand the effect of Elite in infected trees as well as modeling of Elite application via soil drench, foliar application or trunk injection.


Aberton MJ, Wilson BA, Cahill DM (1999) The use of potassium phosphonate to control Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation at Anglesea, Victoria. Australasian Plant Pathology. 28, 225–234.
Abousaeidi D, Mirabolfathy M, Hajabdollahi MA (1990) Study of some fungicides and disease resistant cultivars for control of pistachio root and crown rot (gummosis). Research project report, Iranian Pistachio Research Institute [In Persian with English Summary].
Banihashemi Z, Moradi M (2004) The Frequency of isolation of Phytophthora spp. from crown and root of pistachio nut tree and reaction of the crown and root to the casual agents.  Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 40, 57-77.
Bielenin A, Jones AL (1988) Efficacy of sprays of fosetyl-Al and drenches of metalaxyl for the control of Phytophthora root and crown rot of cherry. Plant Disease. 72, 477-480.
Coffey MD, Bower LA, (1984) In vitro variability among isolates of eight Phytophthora species in response to phosphorous acid. Phytopathology. 74(6), 738-742.
Coffey MD, Ohr HD, Campbell SD, Guillemet FB (1984) Chemical control of Phytophthora cinnamomi on avocado rootstocks. Plant Disease. 68, 956-958.
Cohen Y, Coffey MD (1986) Systemic fungicides and the control of Oomycetes. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 24, 311–338.
Crane CE, Shearer BL (2014) Comparison of phosphite application methods for control of Phytophthora cinnamomi in threatened communities. Australasian Plant Pathology. 43, 143-149.
Daniel  R,  Guest  D (2006) Defence  responses  induced  by  potassium  phosphonate in Phytophthora  palmivora-challenged Arabidopsis  thaliana. Physiological Molecular Plant Pathology. 67, 194–201.
Darvas JM, Toerien JC, Milne DL (1984) Control of avocado root rot by trunk injection with phosethyl- Al. Plant Disease. 68, 691-693.
El-Hamalawi ZA, Menge JA, Adams CJ (1995) methods of fosetyl-Al application and phosphonate levels in avocado tissue needed to controls tem canker caused by Phytophthora citricola. Plant Disease. 79, 770-8.
Eshraghi L, Anderson J, Aryamanesh N, Shearer B, McComb JSt, Hardy GEJ, O’Brien PA (2011)  Phosphite  primed  defence responses  and  enhanced  expression  of  defence  genes  in Arabidopsis  thaliana  infected  with Phytophthora  cinnamomi.  Plant Pathology.  60, 1086-1095.
Fani SR, Zamanizadeh HR, Mirabolfathy M (2005) Isolation and identification of the causal agents of root and crown rot of pistachio trees in the Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. In IV International Symposium on Pistachios and Almonds 726.  pp. 647-650.
Farih A, Menge JA, Tsao PH, Ohr HD (1981) Metalaxyl and efosite aluminum for control of Phytophthora gummosis and root rot on citrus. Plant Disease. 65, 654-657.
Fenn ME, Coffey MD (1984) Studies on the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of fosetyl-Al and phosphorous acid. Phytopathology. 74(5), 606-611.
 Fernandez-Escobar R, Gallego FJ, Benlloch M, Membrillo J, Infante J, Perez de Algaba A (1999) Treatment of oak decline using pressurized injection capsules of antifungal materials. Forest Pathology. 29, 29–38.
Gisi U (2002) Chemical control of downy mildews. In: Advances in downy mildew research. P. T. N. Spencer-Phillips, U. Gisi., A. Lebeda,  eds. Dordrecht, Netherlands. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 159-199.
Grant BR, Dunstan RH, Griffith JM, Niere JO, Smillie RH (1990) The mechanism of phosphonic (phosphorous) acid action in Phytophthora. Australasian Plant Pathology. 19(4), 115-121.
Guest D, Grant B (1991) The complex action of phosphonates as antifungal agents. Biological Reviews. 66(2), 159-187.
Hardy GES, Barrett S, Shearer BL (2001) The future of phosphite as a fungicide to control the soil borne plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi in natural ecosystems. Australasian. Plant Pathology. 30, 133– 139.
Hoover BK, Bates RM (2012) Fungicide efficacy in prevention of root rot incited by Phytophthora cactorum and Phytophthora drechsleri in fraser fir seedlings. Hort Technology. 22(4), 470-475.
Jackson TJ, Burgess T, Colquhoun I, Hardy GES, (2000) Action of the fungicide phosphite on Eucalyptus marginata inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plant Pathology. 49, 147-154.
Jung T, Vannini A, Brasier CM (2009) Progress  in  Understanding Phytophthora Diseases of Trees in Europe 2004–2007, in Goheen EM, Frankel SJ, tech. coords. 2009. Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International  Union  of  Forest  Research  Organizations (IUFRO)  Working  Party  S07.02.09:  Phytophthoras in forests and natural ecosystems. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-221. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. pp. 334.
Lim S, Borza T, Peters RD, Coffin RH, Al-Mughrabi KI, Pinto DM, Wang-Pruski G (2013) Proteomics analysis suggests broad functional changes in potato leaves triggered by phosphites and a complex indirect mode of action against Phytophthora infestans. Journal of Proteomics. 93, 207-223.
McDonald AE, Grant BR, Plaxton WC (2001) Phosphite (Phosphorous acid): Its relevance in the environment and agriculture and influence on plant phosphate starvation response. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 24, 1505-1519.
McGrath MT (2004) What are Fungicides? The plant health instructor. doi: 10.1094/PHI-I-2004-0825-01.
Masago H, Yoshikawa M, Fukada M, Naknishi N (1977) Selective inhibition of Pythium spp. on a medium for direct isolation of Phytophthora spp. from soils and plants. Phytopathology. 67, 425-428.
Matheron ME, Mircetich SM (1985) Control of Phytophthora root and crown rot and trunk canker in walnut with metalaxyl and fosetyl Al. Plant Disease. 69, 1042-1043.
Mirabolfathy M, Cooke D, Duncan JM, Williams NA, Ershad D, Alizadeh A (2001) Phytophthora pistaciae sp nov and P-melonis: the principal causes of pistachio gummosis in Iran. Mycological Research. 105, 1166-1175.
Mirabolfathy M, Ershad D, Hedjaroude GA (1990) Study of some fungicides for control of pistachio root and crown rot. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 26(1-4), 47-56.
Moradi M (2015a). Assessment of application of systemic and protective fungicides for long-term control of pistachio crown and root rot. Final Report of Iranian Pistachio Research Institute 2-06-06-88008. ACIST Register number: 47569. [In Persian].
Moradi M (2015b) Effect of Elit® fungicide on root and crown rot diseases Pistachio under greenhouse and field condition. Pistachio research institute of Iran. ACIST Register number, 42608. [In Persian].
Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa R, Cooke D, Banihashemi Z (2008). Phytophthora parsiana sp. nov., a new high-temperature tolerant species. Mycological Research. 112, 783-94.
Nemestothy GS, Guest DI (1990) Phytoalexin accumulation, phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and ethylenebiosynthesis in fosetyl-Al treated resistant and susceptible tobacco cultivars infected with Phytophthora nicotianae var. nicotianae. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology. 37, 207–219.
Orlikowski LB, Leoni-Ebeling M, Schmidle A (1986) Efficacy of metalaxyl and phosethyl-aluminium in the control of Phytophthora cactorum on apple trees. Z Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenschutz.  93, 202-209.
Shearer BL, Fairman RG (2007) Application of phosphite in a high volume foliar spray delays and reduces the rate of mortality of four Banksia species infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australasian Plant Pathology. 36, 358–368.
Shearer BL, Crane CE, Fairman RG (2004) Phosphite reduces disease extension of a Phytophthora cinnamomi front in Banksia woodland, even after fire. Australasian Plant Pathology. 33, 249–254.
Silva PV, Vélez ML, Hernández Otaño D, Nuñez C, Greslebin AG (2016) Action of fosetyl-al and metalaxyl against Phytophthora austrocedri. Forest Pathology. 46, 54-66.
Smillie R, Grant BR, Guest D (1989) The mode of action of phosphite: Evidence for both direct and indirect modes of action on three Phytophthora spp. in plants. Phytopathology. 79, 921-926.