The Effects of Humic Acid and Calcium on Morpho-Physiological Traits and Mineral Nutrient Uptake of Pistachio Seedling under Salinity Stress

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Pistachio Research Center, Horticulture Sciences Research Institute, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran

2 Department of Plant Science, Payame Nour University of Esfahan, Esfahan, Iran

Abstract

The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of soil application of humic acid and calciumon morpho-physiological traits and Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+ uptake of Pistachio seedling (Akbari) grown under salt stress.  A completely randomized design was used with four replications in greenhouse conditions. The experimental treatment consisted of four levels of humic acid (Bis humic) (0, 4, 8 and 12 gr kg-1 soil) and anti-salt as a source of Ca+2 (0, 1, 2 and 3 gr kg-1 soil). Results indicated that humic acid and  anti-salt significantly increased vegetative growth, such as root fresh and dry weight, stem diameter, leaf number and leaf area, of pistachio seedling in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). However, no significant differences in fresh and dry weight of shoot of pistachio seedling were detected in all treatments except in humic acid 8 gr kg-1 soils. The results indicated that the application of humic acid and anti-salt decreased Na+ absorption in pistachio seedling in all experimental treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences in Ca+2 and Mg+2 absorption were detected in all treatments. Results showed a significant reduction of the electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in all levels of humic acid and anti-salt in soil.  However, in these treatments, there were no statistically significant differences in the pH. The best concentration of humic acid and anti-salt was 8 gr kg-1 soil and 3 gr kg-1 soil, respectively. This study revealed the relative importance and efficiency of humic acid and anti-salt to salinity stress tolerance in pistachio seedling.

Keywords


Adani F, Genevini P, Zaccheo P, Zocchi G (1998) The effect of commercial humic acid on tomato plant growth and mineral nutrition. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 21, 561–575.

Albayrak S, Camas N (2005) Effect of different levels and application times of humic acid on root and leaf yield and yield component of forage turpin. Journal of Agronomy. 42, 130-133.

APHA (1992) Calcium. Standard Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater, 18th Edition. American public Health Association. Method 3500- Ca, 3-57.

APHA (1992) Magnesium. Standard Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater, 18th Edition. American public Health Association .Method 2340- C, 2-36.

APHA (1992) Potassium. Standard Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater, 18th Edition. American public Health Association .Method 3500- K-D, 3-80.

APHA (1992) Sodium. Standard Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater, 18th Edition. American public Health Association .Method 3500- Na-D, 3-93.

Ashraf M (2004) Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants. Flora. 199, 361-376.

Ashraf M, Foolad MA (2007) Improving plant abiotic-stress resistance by exogenous application of osmoprotectants glycine betaine and proline. Environmental Journal of Experiment Botany. 59, 206-216.

Ashraf M, Ozturk M, Athar HR (2008) Salinity and Water Stress (Eds). Series: tasks forvegetation science series 44. Improving Crop Efficiency. Springer-Verlag, Netherland. pp. 246.

Aydin A, Kant C, Turan M (2012) Humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants decreasing membrane leakage. African Journal of Agriculture. 7, 1073–1086

Bernstein L (1975) Effect of salinity and sodicity on plant growth. Annual Review. Journal of Phytopathology. 13, 295–312.

Bernstein L, Francois LE, Clark RA (1974) Interactive effects of salinity and fertility on yields of grains and vegetables. Journal of Agronomy. 66, 412-421.

Bonilla I, El-Hamadaoui A, Bolano L (2004) Boron and calcium increase Pisum sativum seed germination and seedling development under salt stress. Journal of Plant and Soil. 267, 97-107.

Brinkman R (1980) Saline and sodic soils. In: Land reclamation and water management. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen. Netherlands. 62-68

Canellas LP, Danta DJ, Aguiar NO (2011) Probing the hormonal activity of fractionated molecular humic omponents in tomato auxin mutants. Annual Journal of Appllied Biology. 159, 202–211.

Canellas LP, Olivares FL, Okorokaova-Façanha AL, Façanha AR (2002) Humic acids isolated from earthworm compost enhance root elongation, lateral root emergence, and plasma membrane H+ -ATPase activity in maize roots. Journal of Plant Physiology. 130, 1951–1957

Canellas LP, Piccolo A, Dobbss LB (2010) Chemical composition and bioactivity properties of size-fractions separated from a vermicompost humic acid. Chemosphere. 78, 457–466

Canellas LP, Spaccini R, Piccolo A (2009) Relationships between chemical characteristics and root growth promotion of humic acids isolated from Brazilian oxisols. Journal of Soil Science. 174, 611–620

Çimrin KM, Türkmen O, Turan M, Tuncer B (2010)Phosphorus andhumic acid application alleviate salinity stress of pepper seedling. African Journal of Biotechnology. 9(36), 5845-5851.

Costa G, Labrousse P, Bodin C (2008) Effects of humic substances on the rooting and development of woody plant cuttings. Acta
Horticulture. 779, 255–261

Cramer GR, Lynch J, Lauchli A, Epstein E (1986) Effects of NaCl and CaCl2 on ion activities in complex nutrient solutions and root growth of cotton. Journal ofPlantPhysiology. 81, 792-797.

Dabuxilatu Ikeda M (2005) Distribution of K, Na and Cl in root and leaf cells of soybean and cucumber plants grown under salinity conditions. Journal of Soil Science and Plant
Nutrition. 51, 1053-1057.

Delfine S, Tognetti R, Desiderio E, Alvino A (2005) Effect of foliar application of N and humic acids on growth and yield of durum weath. Journal of Agronomy. 25, 183-191.

Dobbss LB, Canellas LP, Olivares FL, Aguiar NO, Peres LEP, Azevedo M, Spaccini R, Piccolo A, Façanha AR (2010) Bioactivity of chemically transformed humic matter from vermicompost on plant root growth. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58, 3681-3688.

El-Nemr MA, El-Desuki M, El-Bassiony AM, Fawzy ZF (2012) Response of growth and yield of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) to
different foliar applications of humic acid and bio-stimulators. Australian Journal of Basic Appllied Science. 6, 630–637

 Eyheraguibel B, Silvestre J, Morard P (2008) Effects of humic substances derived from organic waste enhancement on the growth and
mineral nutrition of maize. Bioresource Technology. 99, 4206–4212

Ferguson L, Poss JA, Grattan SR, Grieve CM, Wang D, Wilson C, Donovan Chao CT (2002) Pistachio rootstocks influence scion growth and ion relations under salinity and boron stress. American Journal of Society Science. 127, 194-199.

Garcia C, Hernandez T, Pascual JA, Moreno JL, Ros M (2000) Microbial activity in soils of SE Spain exposed to degradation and desertification processes. Strategies for their rehabilitation. p. 93-143. In C. Garcia and M.T. Hernandez (ed.) Research and perspectives of soil enzymology in Spain. CEBAS-CSIC, Spain.

GhorbaniS, Khazraei H, Kafi M, Banayan M (2010) The effect of humic acid in water irrigation on yield and component yields of Zea mays L. Journal of Agroecology. 2(1), 123-131. [In Persian]

Hojjat Nooghi F, mozafari V (2012) Effect of calcium on eliminating the negative effects of salinity in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedling. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 6(4), 711-716.

Javed I-ul-H, Wahid A, Rasul E (2000) Some growth and anatomical studies in the leaf and root of differentially salt tolerant pearl millet lines under salinity. Journal of Animal and plant Science. 10, 185-190.

Jindo K, Martim SA, Navarro EC (2012) Root growth promotion by humic acids from composted and noncomposted urban organic wastes. Journal of Plant and Soil. 353, 209–220

Khaled H, Fawy HA (2011) Effect of Different Levels of Humic Acids on the Nutrient Content, Plant Growth, and Soil Properties under Conditions of Salinity.Journal of Soil and Water Resource. 6(1), 21–29.

Lulakis MD, Petsas SI (1995) Effect of humic substances from vine- canes mature compost on tomato seedling growth. Journal of Bioresource Technology. 54, 179–182.

Lynch J, Lauchli A (1988) Salinity affects intracellular calcium in corn root protoplasts. Journal of Plant Physiology. 87, 351-356.

Mahmood A (2009) A new rapid and simple method of screening wheat plants at early stage of growth for salinity tolerance. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 41(1), 255-262.

Manns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Journal of Plant cell and Environment. 25, 239-250.

Moeinrad H (2008) The relationship between some physiological traits and salt tolerance in pistachio genotypes. Journal ofDesert. 13, 129-136.

Moghaddam ARL, Soleimani A (2012) Compensatory effects of humic acid on physiological characteristics of pistachio seedlings under salinity stress. Acta Horticulture. 940, 252–255

Mohamed WH (2012) Effects of humic acid and calcium forms on dry weight and nutrient uptake of maize plant under saline condition. Australian Journal of Basic Applied Science. 6, 597–604

Mora V, Bacaicoa E, Zamarreño A-M (2010) Action of humic acid on promotion of cucumber shoot growth involves nitrate-related changes associated with the root-to-shoot distribution of cytokinins, polyamines and mineral nutrients. Journal of Plant Physiology. 167, 633–642.

Mostafazadeh-fard B, Heidarpour M, Aghakhani A, Feisi M (2007) Effects of irrigation water salinity and leaching on soil chemical properties in an arid region. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 9(3), 466-469.

Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Journal of Plant Cell and Environment. 28, 239-250.

 Nayyar H (2003) Calcium as environmental sensor in plants. Journal of Current Science. 84, 7-10.

Ozdener Y, Guray Kutbay H (2008) Effect of salinity and temperature on the germination of Spergularia marina seeds and ameliorating effect of ascorbic and salicylic acids. Journal of Environment and Biology. 29, 959-964.

Pan G, Smith P, Pan W (2009) The role of soil organic matter in maintaining the productivity and yield stability of cereals in china. Agricultural Ecosystems Environment. 129, 344-348.

Pena-Mendez EM, Havel J, Patocka J (2005) Humic substances, compounds of still unknown structure: applications in agriculture, industry, environment, and biomedicine. Journal of Applied Biomedicine. 3, 13-24.

Peng A, Xu Y, Wang ZJ (2001) The effect of fulvic acid on the dose effect of selenite on the growth of wheat. Biological Trace Element Research. 83, 275–279.

Ranjbar A, Van Damme P, Samson R, Lemeur R (2002) Leaf water status and photosynthethic gas exchange of pistacia khinjuk and p. mutica exposed to osmotic drought stress. Acta Horticulture .591, 423-428.

Richards LA )1954) Diagnosis and imporvment of saline alkali soils. USDA Hand book, No. 60. Washington. D. C., U.S.A.

Römheld V, Neumann G (2006) The Rhizosphere: Contributions of the soil-Root Interface to Sustainable Soil Systems. In: Uphoff, N. (ed.) Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 91-107.

Ryan J, Estefan G, Rashid A )2001(. Soil and plant analysis laboratory manual. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (CARDA).

Sabir P, Ashraf M (2007) Screening of local accessions of Panicum miliaceum L., for salt
tolerance at the seedling stage using biomass production and ion accumulation as selection criteria. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 39(5), 1655-1661.

Sabzevari S, Khezraei h, kafi d (2009) Effect of humic acid on growth of root and shoot Sayonez and Sabalan cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum. L) of water and soil. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 8(3), 473-480. [In Persian]

Sanchez- Sanchez  A, Sanchez –Andreu J, Juarez M, Jorda J, Bermudez D (2006) Improvement of iron uptake in table grape by addition of humic substances. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 29, 259-272.

Sangeetha M, Singaram P, Devi RD (2006) Effect of lignite humic acid and fertilizers on the yield of onion and nutrient availability. Proceedings of 18th World Congress of Soil Science July 9-15, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Shariat jafari MH, kafi M, Astaraie A (2009) Interactive effects of NaCl induced salinity, calcium and potassium on physiomorphological traits of sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L.) Department of Agronomy. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 41(6), 3053-3063.

Tahir MM, Khurshid M, Khan MZ, Abbasi MK, Hazmi MH (2011) Lignite-derived humic acid effect on growth of wheat plants in different soils. Pedosphere. 2, 124–131.

Talaie A, Panahi B (2002) Pistachio Growing in Iran. III International Symposium on Pistachios and Almonds. Journal of Acta Horticulturae (ISHS). 591,133-138

Tavallali V, Rahemi M, Panahi B (2008) Calcium induces salinity tolerance in pistachio root stocks. Journal of Fruits. 63, 201-208. 

Tobe K, Zhang QL, Shimizu H, Omasa K (2001) Characteristics of seed germination in five non-halophytic Chinese desert shrub species. Journal of Arid Environment. 47, 191-201.

Türkmen OA, Dursun M, Turan, Erdinc C (2004) Calcium and humic acid affect seed germination, growth and nutrient content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings under saline soil conditions. Journal of Acta Horticulture. 54, 168-174.

Walker DJ, Bernal MP (2008) The effects of olive mill waste compost and poultry manure on the availability and plant uptake of nutrients in a highly saline soil. Journal of Bioresource and Technology. 99, 396-403.

Wang W, Vinocur B, Altman A (2003) Plant responses to drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Journal of Planta. 218, 1-14.

Wang Y, Combe C, Clark MM (2001) The effects of pH and calcium on the diffusion coefficient of humic acid. Journal of Membrane
Science. 183, 49-60.

Zidan I, Azaizeh H, Neumann PM (1990) Does salinity reduce growth in maize root epidermal cells by inhibiting their capacity for cell wall acidification.  Journal of Plant Physiol. 93, 7-11.