The Effects of Spermine and Salicylic Acid on Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Cultivars (Badami and Qazvini) under Copper Stress

Document Type: Research Article


1 Department of Biology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran

2 Damghan Pistachio station, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Semnan Province (Shahrood), AREEO, Shahrood, Iran


The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Spermine and Salicylic acid on several growth parameters, such as shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weights, amount of protein and carbohydrate, of Badami and Qazvini pistachio cultivated variety under copper stress. The experiment design was completely randomized with three replicates per treatment and four levels of copper (o.5, 30, 45, 60 µM), one level of SA (o.5mM) and one level of Sp (o.5 mM). The excess copper significantly reduced the fresh and dry weight of the shoot and amount protein in pistachio plants. The carbohydrate was also increased as a response to the increase of copper. However, the damage was higher in Qazvini pistachios compared to Badami pistachios. The SPM and SA treatments increased the shoot length and root and shoot fresh weights as well as the amount of protein and moderated the carbohydrate in the pistachio plants under copper stress. The carbohydrate in plant was also increased. It was concluded that SA and SPM could be used as a potential growth regulators to improve copper stress in pistachio plants.


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