Optimization of Fat Replacers and Sweetener Levels to Formulate Reduced- Calorie Pistachio Butter: A Response Surface Methodology

Authors

1 Khorasan Research Institute for Food Science and Technology (KRIFST), Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), POBox: 91775- 1163, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Food Processing, Iranian Academic Center for Education Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad, Iran

4 Department of Agronomy, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), POBox: 91775-1163, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Consumers' awareness about the nutritional profile of their diets has made the industry to respond their needs seriously. In this study, response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of three fat replacers and two sweeteners on sensory attributes and viscosity of low- calorie pistachio butter. Balangu seed extract (BSG) (0.01-0.04), Reihan seed gum (RSG) (0.01-0.023), xanthan (0.06-0.1), isomalt (0-1) and sucrose (0.25-1) were the levels investigated. A central composite design was used to develop models for the responses. The optimum levels of ingredients according to the target values were as follows: xanthan (0.1%), isomalt: pistachio paste ratio (0.81), sucrose: pistachio paste ratio (0.71) for formulas prepared using xanthan gum; Balangu seed extract (0.034%), isomalt: pistachio paste ratio (1) and sucrose: pistachio paste ratio (0.25) for products containing Balangu seed extract; and RSG (0.023%), isomalt: pistachio paste ratio (0.333) and sucrose: pistachio paste ratio (1.0) for formulas prepared by RSG.

Keywords