Effects of Almond Genotype and Growing Location on Oil Percentage and Fatty Acid Composition of its Seeds

Authors

1 Department of Horticulture Science, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2 Horticultural Department of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran

3 Agricultural Biotechnology Research ,Karaj, Iran

Abstract

Almond oil is used in many cosmetic products as a snack, in confectionery (marzipan, "turrón", nougat), food products (almond milk, ice cream, chocolate), culinary recipes and also cosmetic base. For surveying the effects of almond genotype and growing location on oil percentage of oil seed content and fatty acid of almond, seeds of 6 almond cultivars: Ferragnes, Tuono, Azar, Sahand, Nonpareil and Ne Plus Ultra were collected from tree growing in Tabriz (Sahand Station) and Kesht Sanat Jovin regions in Iran and analyzed for oil content and fatty acid in 2011. In this experiment, at least 2g almond kernels from each cultivar of almond with 3 replications were examined individually. Oil extraction methyl esters were done in one step and according to the GC/MS , analysis of fatty acid methyl esters tacked place and according to the HPLC, alpha and beta tocophyrol were determined Our results showed significant variation between cultivars and some degree of different growing location. Oil content varied from 47.36% to 60.54% of the total kernel dry weight in Tuono and Azar respectively. 8 fatty acids of seeds of 6 almond cultivars were determined, with the percentages varying from 0.01% eicosenoeic acid to 78.7% linoleic acid .The results of analysis of eight different fatty acid methyl esters according to the GC/MS methode showed that Oleic acid, Linoleic acid and Palmitic acid contents were deferent as major fatty acids among cultivars in a way that oleic acid contents of samples range between 72.44% (Touno) and 79.14% (Azar). linoleic acid values were varied between 12.05% (Touno) and 18.47% (nonpareil). Palmitic acid contents were obtained between 5.71% (Ferragnes) and 6.97% (Ne plus ultra). According to the results, almond genotype and growing location on oil percentage and fatty acid composition of its seeds were found affect that could be considered in almond agro_breeding program

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